Great Escape – Your Climate Change Survival Plan

Great Escape – Your Climate Change Survival Plan

Unless you’ve booked passage to Mars, it’s time to consider the unimaginable

Written by Starre Julia Vartan – https://medium.com/@thecurioushuman

Three-quarters of the world’s megacities sprawl seaside. More than 40 percent of Americans live in oceanside counties. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration projects that number will increase, even while the seas rise an estimated 20 feet over the next 80 years. Efforts to erect sea walls and implement massive pumping systems are underway in some locales, but even with those measures in place, tens of millions of people will be displaced.

Where will they all go? Most will go inland, of course, and maybe a few will join Elon Musk on Mars. But increasingly, technologists are envisioning off-land human societies—on the water, underwater, and in the air—and they’re developing the technologies that will allow it to happen.

None of this is to downplay the havoc being caused by climate change (or to suggest we should be less diligent about mitigating it), but as legendary sci-fi author Kim Stanley Robinson, whose recent novel New York, 2140 depicts a permanently flooded but still-vibrant Manhattan, says, “It’s important to stay positive about the future, no matter how messed up things are now.”

In that spirit, here’s a look at the new communities we can — and may have to — create.
Seasteading

In January 2017, a startup called Blue Frontiers made an agreement with French Polynesia, a nation that may lose a third of its islands to rising seas by the end of the century. The deal called for the company to build an artificial island (aka a seastead) hosting 300 homes, setting aside 25 percent of the spaces for Polynesians and creating what Blue Frontiers calls “the world’s first environmentally restorative community.”

That’s more than just a nod at sustainability — part of the seastead design process considers the local ecosystem and works toward minimizing environmental impacts, with rainwater harvesting, seabed monitoring, built-in composting, and, of course, renewable energy to power it all.

“Seasteads could be the technology for startup societies. It’s a Silicon Valley sensibility brought to the problem of governance that doesn’t get any better.”

What will this community look like? Picture a connected set of floating platforms, each of which supports a house or group of houses with balconies galore, connected by bridges and walkways and topped with green roofs.

Seasteading as a concept is still in its early stages, and working with existing countries are part of what Joe Quirk, president of the Seasteading Institute, a nonprofit think tank whose research inspired the Blue Frontiers project, calls “strategic incrementalism towards autonomy.” In time, he hopes the developments will become independent nation-states, with systems of governance left up to the people who found them. “Seasteads could be the technology for startup societies,” Quirk says. “It’s a Silicon Valley sensibility brought to the problem of governance that doesn’t get any better.” (That’s certainly how they’re hoping to fund the pilot project. The public presale of Varyon, a cryptocurrency to fund Blue Frontiers, ended on July 14.)

Right now, the technology exists for building a floating city in shallow waters, but what about a new mid-ocean community completely cut off from both an existing landmass and a sovereign government? “The fundamental challenge with [seasteading on] the high seas is waves, and the cost of stability in waves,” Quirk says. “The technology is available, but it’s expensive.”
Floating Pavilion, Rotterdam, Netherlands. Photo: Xavier TESTELIN/Getty

At present, that technology takes the form of the Floating Pavilion in Rotterdam, built by Dutch engineers to show how floating architecture works, as well as oil platforms and the Office of Naval Research’s Floating Instrument Platform (FLIP). The interiors of the FLIP rotate, and the vessel literally flips from horizontal to vertical to keep everything remarkably stable, even in 40-foot waves. This idea could be updated to allow for mid-ocean seasteading.

To be independent, any future ocean-based society will need to harness resources in order to maintain the technology keeping it afloat. That’s where Blue Revolution Hawaii comes into play. Both a book and a project by Patrick Takahashi, a biochemical engineer and director emeritus at the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, Blue Revolution works “hand-in-hand” with seasteading, but its focus is less on governance and more on creating systems powered by ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC).

This energy concept has been around since the Carter administration and utilizes the four-degree Centigrade difference between the ocean’s surface and deep-ocean temps. Takahashi says OTEC could easily power a self-sustaining city, complete with next-gen fisheries and on-site water desalination (a notoriously energy-intensive process). In Takahashi’s vision, there would be plenty of energy left over to create exportable, sustainable fuels, so the community would also have an income source. For instance, OTEC could be used to power a kelp plantation “to produce methane or a biomethanol product, or hydrogen from hydrolysis of water,” according to Takahashi.

First, though, some billionaires are needed. The technology is there, but the Pacific Ocean International Station, the first proposed step toward an OTEC-based energy system, will cost in the neighborhood of $1.5 billion — which the group is actively seeking.
Deep-Water Living

A lot has been made of so-called underwater hotels, but most are really just a lower-level room a few feet below the surface — more like a beneath-the-waves basement than the basis of an underwater society. Jules’ Undersea Lodge, however, is different. To get to it, you have to scuba dive 21 feet deep into a Florida lagoon.

Based in a decommissioned research lab called La Chalupa, the lodge was designed by undersea-living pioneer Ian Koblick, who is also the president of the nonprofit Marine Resources Development Foundation and author of Living and Working in the Sea. Koblick has lived underwater several times for up to three months and was one of the first people to live on the edge of the continental shelf, which he did for several weeks off St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands in 1969. He calls it a “huge adventure,” and says he and the scientists who worked there went into it without knowing “if it was going to pan out or not — and we weren’t sure of whether you’d have long-term physical problems” from living underwater. Luckily, they didn’t.

When it comes to long-term subaquatic lifestyles, Koblick is the realist and Jacques Rougerie is the dreamer. Rougerie, who has also lived underwater for long stretches, once spending 71 days in La Chalupa in 1992, is a French architect who cites Jules Verne’s Nautilus and Jacques Cousteau’s Calypso as inspirations for his beautiful organic structures of future underwater living, from insect-like underwater rooms that together form a village, to a manta ray–like ship that can explore the deepest ocean abysses, to a renewably powered underwater lab that can house eight scientists called SeaSpace. He’s thought about necessities, too, like a sea farm that would allow deep-sea denizens — he calls them “Meriens” — to grow produce underwater, supplementing their diets of more readily available kelp and fish.

Some of Rougerie’s other creations are hybrids, with a portion of the design sticking up out of the water and the rest below, like the SeaOrbiter International Oceanic Station. Rougerie calls it a “slow-pace drifting vessel.” This design, inspired by seahorses, is neither tethered to the ocean floor nor powered to move; instead, it wanders with ocean currents. This low-power design would allow for solar or wave power to keep living systems going, since locomotion would be incidental.

For now, Rougerie’s ideas are still just that. Many would depend on advanced materials that don’t yet exist to deal with the realities of undersea living — a problem Koblick is all too aware of. “You see in these architectural renderings [of undersea structures], they always show these huge glass domes. They don’t realize someone has to be out there cleaning the dome every day or you won’t be able to see out of it in a week,” he says. “You’re liable to get mussels and algae and everything that grows on coral or rock growing on the glass.”

As much as Koblick loved his time underwater, he also appreciates the importance of natural light. He says that one of the “most memorable moments of my life” was when, after three weeks of living on the bottom of the sea, under its hazy light and cold temperatures, “we came out of decompression and saw the gorgeous palm trees waving, the blue sky, white clouds, and big sun.” There’s something to be said for living on the land after all.
Up in the Air

In his book New York 2140, author Kim Stanley Robinson writes about “sky-living in sky villages,” with small, self-sustaining farming communities floating through the air attached to balloons. To Robinson, the upside of this arrangement is clear: “To be on a stable floating village platform at about 10,000 feet would be really a great view all the time,” he says.

The downside: increasingly powerful storms — which are expected due to climate-change impacts.

That’s why the best bet for sky-living might be a more itinerant existence. Like Rougerie’s SeaOrbiter, a drifting approach could be a way to deal with atmospheric changes and winds without expending energy to fight it. “It is not easy [for a balloon] to stay in one place,” says Lodovica Illari, a senior lecturer in meteorology at MIT’s Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences (EAPS). “The atmosphere has very few stagnant points.” This is why most designs for airborne habitats involve balloons, which allow whatever’s attached to (or inside) them to go with the flow.

“With food and energy provided, [balloon-borne sky villages] would be a kind of wandering life with lots of possibilities for visiting places below; a kind of combination of travel and being at home in a small village.”

With a little help from an interface called the Float Predictor, designed by Illari and her colleagues, a balloon traveler can input where they want to go and the program will forecast which is the best day and time to catch the appropriate wind. In this way, it might be possible to slow-travel the planet, sailing along on the fingers of a jet stream.

Float Predictor was developed as part of the Aerocene project, with Argentinian artist/philosopher Tomás Saraceno. He wants to leave behind the violence of the Anthropocene — the geological era defined by human beings’ defilement of the planet — and usher in what he calls the “Aerocene…an era of ecological awareness, in which we learn to float together, live together in the air, and come to an ethical commitment with the atmosphere and the planet earth,” as Saraceno puts it in a TED Talk.

Whatever you think of Saraceno’s utopian vision, his thinking has some practical antecedents: When in residence with the French space agency CNES, he became acquainted with montgolfière infrarouge (MIR) technology: balloons powered by solar radiation from the sun and infrared radiation from the earth, which have been used since the 1970s by scientists taking air samples in the stratosphere. With no motors and no electronics needed to keep them operating, these simple balloons have proven longevity — one stayed aloft for 72 days. And they can scale, says Bill McKenna, a researcher at MIT’s EAPS who worked on the Aerocene project. The larger these balloons are, the more they can lift, and “with the technology that exists, they can lift quite a bit — as long as they stay clear of tall clouds below,” McKenna says.

Robinson suggests that solar energy, easily accessible in the sky, could provide such a floating village with plenty of power, enabling sky villagers to “do agriculture in some compact, intensive way,” he says. “With food and energy provided, it would be a kind of wandering life with lots of possibilities for visiting places below; a kind of combination of travel and being at home in a small village.”

Saraceno stresses that his ideas will inevitably run up against conventional notions of boundaries and borders, both horizontal and vertical. The troposphere (the atmospheric level we live in that’s below the stratosphere) is heavily regulated — both for strategic political and military reasons and the safety of plane passengers. However, McKenna says, the “stratosphere is more open to experimentation.”

Once you get into the stratosphere, of course, you’re above the clouds — and most weather. But then you’re too high for humans to live without being enclosed in a pressurized space. So the sweet spot for humans who might live in the skies would likely be heights of 7,000 to 10,000 feet, where most people are comfortable after some adjustment. There will still be weather to contend with, and McKenna points out that there are all types of no-fly areas out there. But perhaps, in time, navigating around or over them might be just another part of reexamining how we live.

Written by Starre Julia Vartan – https://medium.com/@thecurioushuman

Solar Power in the South African North West

I’m engaged with consultancy work within the new solar power farms – see more here: https://www.businessinsider.co.za/a-massive-new-concentrated-solar-power-station-is-going-live-and-it-will-supply-electricity-day-and-night-across-south-africa-2018-11?

Astonishing development.

Invasives in SA

Plett River Bylaw rationale

The Climate Coalition says golf, football and cricket face an “unexpected threat”, with cricket to be the “hardest hit”.

BBC Open Championship venues such as St Andrews and Royal Troon could be under water by the end of the century if sea levels rise even slightly as a result of climate change, according to a new report.
The Climate Coalition says golf, football and cricket face an “unexpected threat”, with cricket to be thBBC reportse “hardest hit”.

The report predicts “cancelled football matches, flooded cricket grounds and golf courses crumbling into the sea”.

It adds that rising winter temperatures mean the Scottish skiing industry could collapse within 50 years.

The report says six of the UK’s seven wettest years on record have occurred since 2000, with cricket’s County Championship already losing thousands of overs every season.

“Climate change is already impacting our ability to play and watch the sports we love,” said the report, adding that extreme weather is a factor in declining participation and lost revenue.

What is climate change?
Cricket suffers in Cape Town drought

‘We could lose 5-10 metres in a couple of days’
Montrose
Last year, Montrose sacrificed the third tee by moving rocks to reinforce the first green and second tee from coastal erosion

The report says “only a small increase in sea-level rise would imperil all of the world’s links courses before the end of the century”.

The Open is the only one of golf’s majors played in the UK and is hosted on links courses, including – as well at St Andrews and Royal Troon – Royal Birkdale, Hoylake, Royal Lytham & St Annes, Muirfield, Sandwich, Turnberry, Portrush and 2018 venue Carnoustie.

It adds that “more than 450 years of golfing history” at Montrose, one of the five oldest courses in the world, is at risk of being washed away by rising seas and coastal erosion linked to climate change.

Research published by Dundee University in 2016 showed the North Sea has crept 70 metres towards Montrose within the past 30 years.

Chris Curnin, director at Montrose Golf Links, said: “As the sea rises and the coast falls away, we’re left with nowhere to go. Climate change is often seen as tomorrow’s problem – but it’s already eating away at our course.

“In a perfect storm we could lose 5-10 metres over just a couple of days and that could happen at pretty much any point.”

There was as much as 20% less playing time for courses across the greater Glasgow area in 2016-17 compared to 10 years earlier, the report suggests.

“It is a fact that increased rainfall and extreme events are causing more disruption in recreational golf,” says Richard Windows of the Sports Turf Research Institute (STRI).

A spokesman for The R&A, golf’s governing body outside the United States and Mexico, said the sport had been “actively dealing” with the issue for some time.

“Climate change, particularly the impact of sea levels, is a wider issue and ultimately it is not something that golf or any other individual sport can tackle by itself,” the spokesman added.

“We have to continue to raise awareness of the effects of climate change and encourage policymakers to consider the impact it is having on our coastline.”

However, Stephen Anthony, the club secretary at Royal Troon, told BBC World Service that, while they took the matter seriously, they are “not overly concerned”.

“We’ve been proactive over the last 30 years,” he said. “We’ve put lots of things in place to protect our course into the future.”
‘Grassroots football in decline’
Carlisle United’s Brunton Park ground
Carlisle United’s Brunton Park was flooded in the storms of winter 2015

The report states “increased rainfall and more extreme weather events associated with climate change may be a defining factor in the viability of grassroots football”.

It adds that:

Grassroots clubs lose five weeks per season to bad weather;
More than a third lose two to three months;
84% of those highlight facilities as the most pressing issue facing grassroots game;
Sport England reported a 180,000 drop over 10 years in people playing weekly;
25 Football League fixtures postponed during 2015-16 season.

In December 2015, Carlisle United’s Brunton Park was hit by Storm Desmond, forcing the League One club out of their ground for 49 days at a reported cost of nearly £200,000.

“Climate modelling has found that climate change made this storm 59% more likely,” said Kate Sambrook, from the Priestley International Centre for Climate.

In the same season, grassroots club Bromley Heath United were unable to play matches for 12 weeks because of unsuitable pitches.

Longer term, the Football Association will invest £48m in hundreds of new all-weather and specially adapted turf pitches across the country, including new dedicated facilities in 30 cities, in addition to upgrading more than 200 existing pitches nationwide.
Cricket struggles to be ‘commercially viable’
Rain stat

According to the Climate Coalition report, cricket will be “hardest hit” by climate change out of all the major pitch sports, with more rain resulting in more delays and abandonments.

Cardiff-based club Glamorgan have lost 1,300 hours of cricket since 2000 as a result of extreme weather and rainfall.

“Losing so much cricket is a county’s worst nightmare – it affects the club at every level,” said Glamorgan head of operations Dan Cherry. “It’s difficult even for first-class counties to be commercially viable with such an impact.

“T20 Blast is a great way to get new people through the gates and into cricket – but they won’t come back if this keeps happening and it’s damaged the club to the tune of £1m.”

More than a quarter (27%) of England’s home one-day international since 2000 have seen reduced overs because of rain disruptions, while the rate of rain-affected matches has more than doubled since 2011.

The England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) spent £1m in emergency grants in 2016 and £1.6m in 2017 to support clubs and restore their facilities and have set aside £2.5m a year for small grants to help club sides keep matches on.

There is the risk that increasingly disrupted cricket will lead to people no longer getting involved in the sport. According to the report, nearly 40,000 fewer people played cricket in 2015-16 than in 2005-06, a fall of almost 20%.

“There is clear evidence that climate change has had a huge impact on the game in the form of general wet weather and extreme weather events,” said ECB national participation manager Dan Musson.
‘Resorts reliant on artificial snow’
Scotland ski slope
The Scottish ski industry adds £700m to the UK economy per year and supports more than 20,000 jobs

The Scottish skiing industry could collapse within 50 years as rising temperatures during the winter prevent regular snowfall, according to a Met Office warning referenced by the Climate Coalition.

Three of Scotland’s main resorts are spending “more than half” their operating budgets on artificial snow factories after a tough 2016-17 season, the report states.

Expert predictions suggest an increase of between 2C and 4C and a 60% reduction in Scottish snowfall by the 2080s.

The Alps are also predicted to see a 2C-4C increase and a drop in snowfall of between 70-100% at elevations below 1500m in that time.
What can sports do about it?

The report warns the impacts of climate change will worsen unless governing bodies, clubs and participants work to reduce their emissions and environmental impact.

Both Manchester City and Manchester United created nature reserves at their training grounds. Meanwhile, the report higlhighted that:

United also collect and recycle rainwater to irrigate and maintain the pitch at Old Trafford;
The R&A introduced an initiative to encourage golf events to be more environmentally friendly;
Lord’s cricket ground has led the way in introducing sustainability measures, and most major grounds have followed the example.

Analysis

BBC golf correspondent Iain Carter

These findings should cause great concern among golf’s authorities. The game was founded on the links turf of the British seaside and provides golf in its most authentic form – as well as sums in excess of £75m to local economies on an annual basis.

But the sport has recognised its precarious position at the hands of mother nature, with a number of green initiatives adopted in recent years.

This report might also impact on discussions aimed at limiting driving distances because it highlights potential dangers in the maintaining the current trend of lengthening golf courses.

Boschendal Wine Estate – bucks the drought trend

The Western Cape has faced its worst drought in a century, and this is the third consecutive year of that drought. Cape Town’s mayor has been at pains to point out that — with climate change — “This is the new normal.”

With dwindling water supply to farmers, crop productions have been slashed and, across the Province, between 35,000 and 50,000 jobs are at risk, excluding an even larger number of seasonal workers. I asked for the provincial department of agriculture’s stats for produce under threat but received no response! I am underwhelmed!

Minister Alan Winde’s speeches, however, paint a dire picture which are just a tip of the iceberg. A month ago, Alan visited the West Coast. “There’s thousands and thousands of hectares of agricultural land below the Clanwilliam Dam which produces a lot of produce and revenue for our country that’s now under severe water restrictions. They’re going to produce 50% less,” he said. “Farmers are being throttled and are forced to use 60% less water, with the Clanwilliam Dam level at around 36%. There’s an 80% decrease in potato crops and a drop in wine and export quality citrus.” With commercial farmers struggling, one focus for Province is supporting backyard food gardens for workers’ food security.

“In places like Ceres, 80% less potatoes and 50% less onions will be planted resulting in about R40 million less paid out in salaries and wages. In Lutzville the tomato paste plant will not even open this year. Some 30 000 animals have been sold as farmers battled to feed their core herds.”

Against this backdrop, Boschendal started out at the beginning of the drought with a massive planting of 600,000 new fruit trees over a period of three years — which has just been completed. Permanent jobs in farming operations alone has grown from 70 to 287. Their dams are full and Jacques du Toit, Boschendal’s general manager, said the dams started overflowing on 20 August and he counted 15 streams on the farm running into the Dwars River, on to the Berg River, and out to sea…

A rare sight for Capetonians who have become accustomed to seeing photographs of parched dams: York Dam on the slopes of Drakenstein mountain looking across to Simonsberg mountain. The photographs of the dams were taken on 30 November 2017.

Normandie Dam is alongside York Dam.

Rhodes Dam on the slopes of Simonsberg mountain.
Upper Vineyards Dam

Mountain Vineyards Dam on the slopes of Simonsberg mountain.
Rachelfontein Dam

Rachelfontein Dam, the overflow dam for Mountain Vineyards Dam, with the Matroosberg mountain above Worcester just peaking through in the distance.
Cleaning dams

At the end of last summer, the dams were cleaned and silt removed. Farmers may not increase the size of their dams. (Crazy, huh?) At York dam, they found underwater mountains of rubble that had never been removed from the dam when it was constructed.

Boschendal dams (and just some of them are shown above) hold 3½ million cubic metres of water — 3,500 megalitres. Boschendal relies entirely on its own dams for all agricultural water. It doesn’t draw any water from the Theewaterskloof, Berg River or any State dams for farming operations.

Filling the dams and making the water last is achieved by careful and effective custodianship and management of the land — alien clearing does make a very big difference to water flows from the mountains and nurturing soil quality in the vineyards and orchards sees water use reduced by 30%. Jacques du Toit keeps repeating: “Soil health is everything.”

Jacques and former CEO, Rob Lundie, spent hours discussing and debating innovations to improve the management of the land. Rob encouraged all managers to research and innovate — and YouTube is full of inspiration for farmers. They trialled new orchard blocks where cover crops were planted before and after the new trees were planted. Planting cover crops after the new trees were established won. The cover crops are a mix of rye grass, turnips, ciradella, radishes, vetch and red & white clover Boschendal’s Black Angus beef herd grazes on the cover crops… leaving their own goodness behind.

Apart from reducing water usage, the good soil quality also reduces the need for fertilizers by 30%. Using biological fertilizers, although more expensive, is also better for the soil.

Jacques started soil tests at Rob’s insistence and the orchards gave a reading of only 2. He went up to the Viewpoint to fetch some topsoil for comparison. “One needs a non-disturbed reference as yardstick. It was rich and full of earthworms,” he recalls. “The reading from that soil was 21! Better than good.” In the following six months, he managed to improve soil quality in the orchards by 400-600%.”

“Healthy soil holds rain water — the statistics show that 300,000-500,000 litres of water per hectare per 1% increase in humus is saved. You need less irrigation and the land seeps for longer, amongst many other benefits,” says Rob.
Computer screen in the office showing the status of the probes measuring moisture.

Computer screen in the office showing the status of the probes measuring moisture.

Boschendal is micro-managed. There are 300 precision probes in the soil measuring moisture every 10cm to a depth of 80cm — one per hectare in the orchards and one every three hectares in the vineyards — with repeaters to the office.

There is an irony to the “bad” alien vegetation… it is being recycled to improve the quality of the soil in the orchards. It all goes into a chipper — at a rate of 50m³ a day — and 200m³ of wood chips/hectare goes into the topsoil on the orchards. It’s going to take another two years of chipping before there will be enough for the whole farm. Distributing the wood chips was a time-consuming process so Jacques designed a machine to do it more efficiently.

Some of the alien vegetation is used to create biochar, which is added to the farm’s composting operation, using waste from the restaurants and winery. The worm farm on the Estate has become a dedicated operation.

The beef herd, which peaked at nearly 800 cows, has been reduced to 600 — the number best suited to the farm. Farmer Rico’s pasture-raised chickens also fall under Jacques’ ambit now and will soon have 4000 lay hens and 2000 broilers. But it’s the pigs that must be the envy of pigs everywhere! There are three forested camps each of about 2½ hectares in forests where they roam free.
Boschendal’s new solar farm

With Eskom’s future looking increasingly bleak and electricity price hikes almost assured, Boschendal’s massive second solar farm producing almost 1 megawatt of electricity has just been commissioned, reducing the farm’s reliance on the national grid.
Stellenbosch dam above Ida’s Valley, with Simonsberg behind

Stellenbosch dam above Ida’s Valley, with Simonsberg behind, was 97% full last week.

What are the lessons from Boschendal? The most important is that preparation for the drought should have started over three years ago.

The Stellenbosch dam above Ida’s Valley on the other side of Simonsberg was also full and stood at 97% last week, This has less to do with Stellenbosch municipality and everything to do with the farmers of the Greater Simonsberg Conservancy — who cleared alien vegetation in the catchment area and watercourses above the dam. Take a bow Tokara and Thelema Estates, for over five years they have continuously cleaned up all alien vegetation.

Cape Town’s mayor is correct when she says “this is the new normal”. But the City has been preaching Climate Change for nearly 20 years… so why wasn’t it prepared? Why is the City building temporary desalination plants if this is the new normal?

The mayor recently added alien clearing around Wemmershoek dam to her list of interventions — that’s going to have no impact in the short term because the rains are long past. Had they started five years ago, clearing alien vegetation in the catchment areas of all Cape Town dams, an expert speaking on CapeTalk radio said the impact would have been the equivalent of building a new full Wemmershoek dam.

The City has failed its citizens, and national government… well… they have neither the competence, the political will nor the funding to make a difference. The national Department of Water & Sanitation is bankrupt.

Politicians are playing Russian Roulette with the Province’s future. They focus on politically-expedient decisions rather than long term plans. I asked one politician what will happen if the drought… the new normal… doesn’t break next winter. “We’ll all resign,” was the answer. Now that’s cold comfort! Maybe a few really good farmers would do a better job of running the City and Province.

Source: http://capeinfo.com/